Παρασκευή, 7 Ιουνίου 2013

PLEIADES



The PLEIADES
The stars called PLEIADES in the constellation of Taurus commemorate the PLEIADES, daughters of Atlas and Pleione, daughter of Oceanus. The rising of the PLEIADES is a sign of summer, and their setting of winter, and for this reason this constellation has been more honored than the others.

Number of PLEIADES
It is said that the PLEIADES are seven in number but only six can be seen. Some say that the reason is that all mated with immortals except one of them (Merope). However, others affirm that because of the sack of Troy and the destruction of the house of Dardanus, Electra left her sisters, and took a place in the Artic circle. That is why they sing:
... In Troy's last hour ... Electra shrouded her form in mist and cloud, and left the Pleiad-band ... Still rises up ... their bright troop in the skies; but she alone hides viewless ever since the town of her son Dardanus in ruin fell ... [Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy 13.555]
Pleione attacked by Orion
But ancient astronomers placed the PLEIADES apart from the constellation Taurus. They say that when Pleione once was travelling with her daughters through Boeotia, she was attacked by Orion, and as she managed to escape from him, he sought her for seven years without being able to find her. Zeus then, pitying the girls, appointed a way to the stars, and later astronomers said that they were in the Bull's tail (Taurus' tail). That is why Orion goes after them as they flee towards the west.




List of PLEIADES
Alcyone
This was the second of the PLEIADES to have intercourse with Poseidon. Apd.3.10.1; Ov.Fast.4.173; Pau.2.30.8.
Mates 
Poseidon 










Offspring
Aethusa. Aethusa mated with Apollo and had a son Eleuther by him that won a Pythian victory for his loud and sweet voice.
Hyrieus. Hyrieus is said to be father of Orion. For his famous treasure stolen by architects see Delphi
Hyperenor . Hyperenor  is the founder of Hyperea, a city in Argolis.
Anthas. Anthas founded Anthea or Anthedon (now Poros).

Celaeno
Others say her father was Ergeus but they do not say who her mother was. Apd.3.10.1; Hyg.Ast.2.21; Hyg.Fab.157; Ov.Fast.4.173.
Mates
Poseidon
Offspring
Lycus  Lycus  dwells in the Islands of the Blest.
Nycteus  Nycteus is, for some, Callisto's father.
Euphemus

Electra
This is the one of the PLEIADES who does not appear in the sky because of the death of Dardanus and the loss of Troy .
Apd.3.10.1, 3.12.1; Dio.5.48.2; Hyg.Ast.2.21; Hyg.Fab.192; Nonn.3.186, 3.332ff.; Ov.Fast.4.31, 4.174-177; QS.13.552ff.
Mates
Zeus








Offspring
Dardanus Dardanus is the founder of the house of Troy.
Iasion Iasion is known for being the lover of Demeter.
Harmonia For Harmonia.
Emathion Emathion was king of Samothrace.

Maia
This is the eldest of the PLEIADES. She was said to have surpassed her sisters in beauty. Brought up Arcas, son of Zeus & Callisto, in Arcadia.
Apd.3.8.2, 3.10.1-2; Hes.The.938; Ov.Fast.4.174, 5.85; Vir.Aen.8.140.
Mates
Zeus
Offspring
Hermes









Merope
This is the seventh of the PLEIADES. She married a mortal man and she repents of it, and from shame at the deed she alone of the sisters hides herself in the sky. Apd.3.10.1; Hyg.Ast.2.21; Ov.Fast.4.175; Pau.9.34.7-10.
Mates
Sisyphus
Offspring
Glaucus  Glaucus is father of Bellerophon.
Almus Almus received some land in Boeotia from King Eteocles  and a village Almones was called after him.
Thersander The children of Thersander (Haliartus, Coronus  and Proetus ) were adopted by Athamas, and received land from him. Proetus's daughter Maera died very young.

Sterope
Apd.3.10.1; Hyg.Ast.2.21; Hyg.Fab.14; Ov.Fast.4.172; Pau.6.22.4, 20.1.1.
Mates
Ares 











Offspring
Oenomaus

Mates
Oenomaus
Offspring
Hippodamia.
Leucippus  Leucippus is the one who fell in love with Daphne, also loved by Apollo.
Dysponteus Dysponteus is the founder of Dyspontium in Elis

Taygete
This is the one of the PLEIADES who consecrated to Artemis the Cerynitian Hind with the golden horns that Heracles had to fetch.
Apd.3.10.1; Hyg.Ast.2.21; Nonn.32.65; Ov.Fast.4.174; Pin.Oly.3.28; Vir.Geo.4.231.
Mates
Zeus


Offspring 
Lacedaemon   The country of Lacedaemon is called after him. He married Sparta



Atlas
 
 



Atlas holding the sky
Some say that the Titan Atlas worked out the science of astrology and discovered the spherical nature of the stars. But he is best known for bearing on his shoulders the pillars that keep earth and heaven apart. This burden, a heavy one and difficult to grasp, is the punishment Zeus imposed on him for having been the leader of the TITANS during their war against the OLYMPIANS [see Titanomachy]. And Atlas, they say, though pre-eminent in strength, moans as he holds the vault of the sky on his back.

Called Arcadian king
Atlas is said to have reigned in Arcadia and have been succeeded by Deimas, son of Dardanus, the king who is at the origin of the royal house of Troy.

Atlas in the far west
But Atlas is also said to have ruled in northwestern Africa where he had, among other riches, a tree with golden leaves, golden branches, and golden fruits. Some affirm that these are the Golden Apples that were given by Gaia, as a wedding present, to Zeus and Hera.

Atlas turned into stone
To this realm, some say, came Perseus after having killed Medusa, and presenting himself as son of Zeus, asked Atlas for hospitality and a chance to rest. But Atlas, who had enclosed his orchard with walls and put a dragon to watch the tree and its golden fruits, remembering Themis' prophecy
"Atlas, the time will come when your tree will be spoiled of its gold by a son of Zeus." [Themis to Atlas. Ovid, Metamorphoses 4.643]
advised Perseus to leave, adding threats to his words. It was then that Perseus, holding the head of Medusa in front of the Atlas' eyes, turned him into stone, and the huge stone into which the Titan was changed is today called Mount Atlas.




Perseus shows the dreaded head of Medusa to Atlas

Mount Atlas
The Libyans living around this chain of mountains, they say, never ate a living creature, for they lived on wild vines, and saw no dreams in their sleep. And those Libyans living closest to these mountains also professed to know the measurements of the earth. These mountains are very high and were believed to touch heaven, but were altogether inaccessible because of the density of trees.

The Golden Apples
Yet some may think that the account of Atlas-into-stone cannot refer to the same Atlas, for Heracles deceived Atlas, and he had not been able to do it, being as he was a descendant of Perseus, if his ancestor had turned Atlas into stone with the help of Medusa's dreaded head, as it is told.
For, they say, when Heracles went in search of the Golden Apples of the HESPERIDES, which some think were in the north and not in the west, Prometheus (Atlas' brother) advised him no to fetch the apples himself, but to send Atlas instead. So Heracles, following Prometheus's instructions, offered to hold the sky while Atlas fetched the golden apples. But on his return Atlas, who apparently felt released, said that he would deliver the apples himself to Eurystheus, the man who had asked for them. But Heracles asked Atlas to hold the sky for a moment while he placed a pad on his head, and when Atlas held the sky again, Heracles picked up the apples and left. This is why Atlas still holds the sky.




Athena assists Heracles in holding the sky as Atlas returns with the apples

Descendants of Atlas
 


The Pelopides
The Pelopides (descendants of Pelops) may be called descendants of Atlas because Pelops's wife was the daughter of a Pleiad and the PLEIADES were daughters of Atlas. Also, Pelops's mother could have been a daughter of Atlas. The Pelopides ruled Mycenae from King Eurystheus until the return of the HERACLIDES.

Some Theban rulers
Among the Thebans, Nycteus and Lycus were said to have come from Euboea, but they too might be descendants of Atlas, and so could be Amphion, grandson of Nycteus. Amphion was married to Pelops's sister Niobe, mother of the NIOBIDS

Trojans
The Trojans were also descendants of Atlas, as their ancestor Dardanus was son of one of the PLEIADES
 







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